Cardiovascular mortality, despite of drop in last decades, it is still main (about 50%) reason of deaths in most of the developed countries. One of the factor which could influence incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is a physical activity. The aim of the paper was assessment in men and women aged 35-64, citizens of city region and rural-industrial region in Poland the association between physical activity (and its types) and cardiovascular risk factors and risk of death. The sample was 3806 men and women, population of Tarnobrzeg voivodship and right-bank Warsaw (data from The POL-MONICA Project), aged 35-64. Information on physical activity based on Monica Optional Study on Physical Activity questionnaire. In the population of Tarnobrzeg voivodship there was a positive relationship between physical activity and the concentration of HDL cholesterol in blood, FVC, FEV1 and negative with triglicerydes and heart rate. Risk of death in people with high physical activity was 43% less than in others. In Warsaw population there was no association of total physical activity with risk of deaths observed. There was no association of leisure-time physical activity with analyzed factors in both studied populations. Presenting a role of physical activity in survival analysis made first time in Polish population could help in better understanding factors prolonging life.