The work aims at covering the history of relations between Polish and Italian surgeons from the XVIth century until the end of the Second World War. The work is divided into five principal parts. In the first part the author presents the process of migration of Polish students in the XVIth and the XVIIth centuries to Italian universities in search of modern medical education as well as the process of migration of Italian surgeons of that period to Poland. The role of Italian surgeons in Polish XVIIIth century surgery and Polish surgeons traveling to Italy during this time are also recalled. The implications of resulting knowledge transfer are discussed. In the second part the author describes the era of rapid development of surgery which begun with the invention of anesthesia and antiseptics in the mid XIXth century. In this chapter the author describes in detail how new surgical ideas, technical innovations and particular surgical skills developed in Italy or in Poland have been implemented in the other country. The knowledge transfer with the help of scientific publications, travel of particular surgeons, and surgical congresses and publications of translated congress’ proceedings is presented. This part is divided into subchapters each describing a particular surgical subspecialty. The third part of the work presents three of the most important surgical congresses that took place in Italy and in Poland before the outbreak of the Second World War. In the fourth part the memories of Polish surgeons travelling to visit Italian surgical clinics before the World War II are recalled and widely cited. The last part describes the contacts between surgeons from both nations during the first and second World Wars. Special attention is paid to Polish surgeons fighting in Italy during Italian Campaign.