The aim of the study was to characterize the factors that determine the level of the antibodies against N-homocysteinylated albumin and hemoglobin in patients on long-term hemodialysis and to evaluate a correlation between the level of this antibodies and the occurrence of the cardiovascular episodes in this population. 247 patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis and 60 age, sex and cardiovascular risk factor-matched controls with creatinine level <140 µmol/l were recruited to the study. Patients on hemodialysis had higher levels of antibodies against N-homocysteinylated albumin and hemoglobin. The correlations between the level of these antibodies and the level of total homocysteine, 8-isoprostaglandine F2α and folate were observed. By the multivariate linear regression the independent predictor of the level of antibodies was total homocysteine. The correlation between the level of antibodies and the oxidative stress was observed. There was no association between the level of antibodies and the occurrence of cardiovascular episode during the clinical follow-up.