In order to find the correlation between blood concentration of pro- and anti angiogenic cytokines and stage of diabetes mellitus (DM) and vascular abnormalities 52 subjects (37 patients with DM and 15 healthy volunteers - control group) were examined. Patients with DM were divided into: group II (n=12; early diagnosed DM; without retinopathy), group III (n=15; advanced DM without retinopathy ) and group IV (n=10; advanced DM with retinopathy). Risk factors for retinopathy were investigated. Concentration of VEGF, bFGF, and PEDF in the peripheral blood were measured and possible relationship with the stage of DM and retinal vascular abnormalities was studied. Statistically important differences in routinely analysed biochemical parameters between studied groups and between patients from group IV with different stage of diabetic retinopathy were not found. They had no importance in assessment of risk of retinopathy development. Abnormalities of angiogenesis regulation were observed. They led to VEGF predominance. A positive, statistically important correlation between concentration of VEGF in the peripheral blood and metabolic abnormalities typical for DM was detected.. Increased VEGF concentration was recognized as a distinct risk factor of retinopathy. Statistically important increased VEGF/bFGF concentration ratio found in the group IV could serve in the future as additional risk factor of retinopathy. Presented data suggest that measurement of pro- ant antiangiogenic cytokines concentration in the peripheral blood could be used in risk assessment of development of diabetic retinopathy.