Background: Chronic exposure to high blood pressure may lead to the development of organ damage. This cross-sectional study compares various aspects of psychological functioning in hypertensive patients with arterial stiffness or left ventricular hypertrophy and in subjects with hypertension but without vascular and cardiac damage. Methods: The study group consisted of 93 subjects (46 females) with primary hypertension. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were evaluated and used as markers of cardiac and vascular damage. Psychological functioning of each study participant was assessed using 7 different psychometric tools: NEO-FFI, DS14, EAS, PSS10, CISS, Mini-COPE and SOC-29. Results: The study revealed significant differences in personality traits, ways of coping with stress and some aspects of sense of coherence between patients with hypertension-mediated organ damage and hypertensive individuals without such health complications.