Quality of conditions during early life is important in shaping later life characteristics, including, for example, risk of civilization diseases. Due to ethical and methodological concerns direct measurement of developmental conditions is limited. Therefore, it is crucial to search for markers of these conditions, which have stable values and are possible to measure at every stage of the life course.This dissertation aimed to analyze the relationship between two markers of the quality of developmental conditions: 2D:4D digit ratio (a ratio between the length of the second and fourth finger in both hands) and dermatoglyphic markers [expressed as absolute finger ridge count (AFRC) and as the mean ridge counts of both thumbs minus the mean ridge counts of both little fingers (Md15)] and constitutional characteristics, diseases risk factors and reproductive characteristics in women. Data were collected between 2011–2014 among 432 women aged 45–92 from a population characterized by high parity, living in Beskid Wyspowy area in southern Poland. Results presented in this dissertation confirm the importance of developmental environment in shaping reproductive characteristics, body height and grip strength in Polish, rural women from a population with high parity. Further studies are crucial from public health perspective. Markers of developmental quality analyzed in this dissertation ; are stable across the lifespan and easy and non–expensive to measure. Consequently, these markers might play a role ofcomplementary tools in public health interventions and be helpful in detecting risk groups, especially in the light of increasing frequency of fertility problems among women.