Aim The aim of the study was to describe physicians, nurses and midwives basic knowledge about pain and practice regarding procedural pain assessment and management in Polish neonatal care units.MethodsA questionnaire was sent to 100 Polish neonatal units. Physicians, nurses and midwives were asked to complete a researcher-developed questionnaire. The survey icluded 40 questions. Respondent’s knowledge about basic issues related to pain were assessed using 8 open-ended questions. The frequency of use of selected pain medicines and pain treatment according to quidelines were assessed using Likert-scale questions.ResultsA total of 76 units responded positively and 852 questionnaires were returned. Data were available from 617 nurses and midwifes and 235 physicians. The median of correct answers given by nurses and midvifes was 4, and physicians 5. The highest number of correct answer was given by physicians work at third level of neonatal care (p=0.001) and with 6-15 years’ work exeprience (p=0.04). Among nurses, none of the factors affected the level of knowledge. Pain treatment before selcted procedures seems to be insufficent. Before intubating, about 33% physicians and 37.5% nurses from third level of neonatal care did not administer any of painkillers. Before chest tube insertion, 23.4% nurses reported lack of use of pain medicines. The study also reveald the frequent use of paracetamol before painful procedures. About 40% of physicians were used paracetamol before chest tube insertion.More than half of respondents (60% of nurses from I level, 87% from 2.level and 71% from III level) did not use pain scales. Almost 60% physicians did not use written guidelines for pain management but they followed their experience. ConclusionThere is a deficiency in the knowledge and practice of neonatal pain management. There is a need for the education of health professionals on neonatal pain management. This study suggested that Polish neonatal units need national guidelines for pain management.