The main objective of the study was to assess the quality of life at the early stage of the neoplastic disease. The specific objectives were to investigate the dependance between the temperament, cognitive and affective factors, as well as the quality of life, to identify important predictors for accepting the quality of life, and also to define a profile of psychological features predisposing to high and low quality of life at the early stage of the neoplastic disease. The proposed model of the quality of life conditions at an early stage of a neoplastic disease in women with a breast cancer explained over 40% of the quality of life variances, however, it turned out to be particularly useful in explaining variances of a mental component of the quality of life. One of the more important predictors of the quality of life, particularly related to mental health, turned out to be a part of the image of own disease, which was a conviction about negative impact of the disease on emotional functioning. The indirect relationship between temper and quality of life has been indicated in the study. The obtained results indicated that it was a predisposition, which led to changes of the quality of life only after including numerous cognitive and affective factors. The cognitive factors turned out to be the predictors of the affective factors and in consequence the quality of life. This outcome authorizes to make a postulate on purposefulness of psychotherapeutic interventions, directed at changing the cognitive appraisal of a neoplastic disease.