Study purpose The aim of the study was to compare the surgical treatment of the patients with ureterolithiasis who were subjected to retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU) and open ureterolithotomy (OU). Materials and methodsMaterial:Two groups were compared: RLU (30 patients) and OU (31 patients)Methods:RLU and OU groups were compared considering the following aspects:j) Operation efficiency. k) Operation time. l) Duration of drain holding in the postoperative site m) Postoperative term of stay at the hospital. n) Number and type of complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. o) Incidence of postoperative ureter stenosis. p) Demand for analgesics. q) Patients’ postoperative quality of life. r) Cost of treatment. FindingsNo statistically significant differences between the groups were detected in terms of the efficiency, the operation time, duration of drain keeping in the postoperative site and the number of complications in both types of surgical procedure. No results were found in terms of postoperative ureter stenosis and quality of life. The postoperative term of stay at the hospital was longer in the OU group (p<0.0001). Patients in the OU group had a higher need for non-opioid analgesics (p<0.0100) and opioid analgesics (p=0.0020). Total hospitalisation cost in the RLU group was lower than in OU group (p=0.0370).ConclusionsRetroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is an efficient and safe method for treatment of those patients with ureteral deposits for whom open ureterolithotomy would be an alternative method.