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Title: The frequency of use of cosmetic ingredients as a risk factor for contact allergy


Contact allergy is specific hypersensitivity reaction of delayed type to low molecular weight substances (referred to as haptens). Cosmetics belong to the one of the most important sources of sensitizing.The aim of my study was an attempt the evaluation of consumers exposure to allergy ingredients of cosmetics on the basis of frequency of occurrence allergy to ingredients of cosmetics. The next one aim of my study was an analysis the correlation between this exposure and the frequency of allergy appearance to this cosmetic ingredients (date has been sourced from conducted metaanalysis).Material and methods: My research was done in 3 stages. In the first stage I gathered the data concerning the content of ingredients with known allergic potential which were found in cosmetics for body and hair caring. The cosmetics that I tested were being sold in Krakow from August to November 2013. Next I analyzed the functions of individual cosmetic ingredients on the recognized Database. The functions of cosmetic ingredients were divided into 4 groups: preservatives, fragrances, colorants, UV filter and I summed them up in terms of the frequency of their appearance into groups of leave on and rinse off cosmetics, divided for children and for adults. In the second stage I did the metaanalysis of epidemiological data concerning the frequency of allergy appearance to this cosmetic ingredients ( ; publications concerning the european population and publication data since 2000). I searched literatures, base on queries in bibliographic database PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Google Schoolar. In the third stage on the basis of data which was obtained in the first and second stages I undertaken an attempt to analysis the correlation between the exposure to allergic ingredients and frequency of allergy to them. In order to determine the correlation I plotted the graph. ; The results: On the basis on my first stage I analyzed 1846 unique cosmetic products and singled out 336 unique cosmetic ingredients (which fulfill at least one out of four functions: preservatives, fragrances, colorants or UV filters) for which ones I did the systematic review (II stage). The most common cosmetic ingredients, fulfilled one of these functions were: limonene (in 35,2% leave-on products and 40% rinse-off), linalool (38,1% leave-on and 43,7% rinse-off), phenoxyethanol (54% leave-on; 19,2% rinse off), sodium benzoate (13,18% leave-on; 45,6% rinse-off), methylisothiazolinone (16,7% leave-on; 42,5% rinse-off) as well as methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone mixture (9,6% leave-on; 40% rinse-off). In the second stage on the basis on systematic review I obtained 117 publications which were the source of epidemiological data. What is more I did the metaanalysis for the 69 substances. The most frequently sens ; itizing substances turned out: fragrance mix I (sensitizing 9% in the population with eczema), fragrance mix II (sensitizing 5,1% in the population with eczema), methylisothiazolinone and methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone mixture (respectively 3,1% and 2,9% in the population with eczema). In the third stage I undertaken an attempt to analysis the correlation between the exposure to allergic ingredients and theZał. nr 1 do § 2 zarządzenia nr 45Rektora UJ z 12 czerwca 2006 rokufrequency of allergy to them - it didn’t prove the existing correlation. An interested it turned out a frequent use of limonene in 48,8% and linalool in 52% examined leave-on cosmetic products and two preservatives - methylisothiazolinone and methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone mixture (correspondingly presence in 42,5% and 40% rinse-off cosmetics) with a high incidence of allergic reactions to those four substances, each of them allergenic about 3% of the population with eczema.Conclusions: The most frequent in cosmetics fragrance ingredients with known allergic potential are limonene and linalool, and the most common preservatives are phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone mixture (MCI/MI). The most frequently sensitizing substances are fragrances – in particular fragrance mix I and fragrance mix II (sensitizing every tenth and twentieth of perso ; n in the population with eczema), while among preservatives attention should be paid to MI and MCI/MI. Carried out an attempt to analysis the correlation, shows that there is no simple relationship between the prevalence of cosmetic ingredients in cosmetics and the incidence of allergies to those ingredients. This could be partly be due to the fact that the data comes from different geographic areas and different periods of time. Moreover it can be also caused the existence of additional factors not included in this analysis. However studies show that cosmetics are a frequent source of sensitizing haptens.

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Level of degree:

2 - studia doktoranckie

Degree discipline:

dermatologia ; alergologia

Degree grantor:

Wydział Farmaceutyczny


Śpiewak, Radosław

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Last modified:

Mar 16, 2023

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Mar 14, 2017

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ZB-126044 Mar 16, 2023


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