The aim of the present study was to characterize surgery-induced changes in distribution and immune function of ab and gd T cells. Presented data shows distinct changes in distribution pattern of both T cell populations after partial gastrectomy. There was significant decrease in percentage of ab T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer’s patches and peripheral blood on the third day after partial gastrectomy. At the same time there were no significant changes in distribution of ab T cells in peripheral lymph nodes and in the spleen. In contrast the percentage of gd T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer’s patches and peripheral lymph nodes was significantly increased on day 3. Simultaneously the percentage of gd T cells in peripheral blood was decreased, whereas no changes were observed in the spleen. The gastrectomy-induced changes in distribution of both T cells populations were most pronounced at day 3 after the surgery, whereas they disappeared almost completely on day 7. Laparotomy alone (sham operation) had no or a little effect on T cell numbers in all tested lymph organs. Hence the severity of the trauma may be of great importance. The data obtained from in vitro experiments showed suppressor activity of gd T lymphocytes isolated from MLN of gastrectomized mice. The gastrectomy-induced regulatory gd T cells suppressed proliferation of T effector lymphocytes in vitro via released TGF-b. The regulatory T cells were not induced in mesenteric lymph nodes of sham-operated mice.