The influence of tobacco smoking on the lead and cadmium concentration in the urine of pregnant women


Gomółka, Ewa


cadmium ; pregnant women ; lead ; tobacco smoking


The purpose of the study was to measure the concentration of lead and cadmium in urine of women who, smoked, were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and were unexposed during pregnancy. The correlations between exposition to tobacco smoke and socioeconomic factors, course of pregnancy and health status of newborns were estimated. The subjects of the study were 231 pregnant women. Information about exposition to tobacco smoke, socioeconomic state, course of pregnancy and health status of newborns were collected from questionnaire. The estimation of tobacco smoke exposition of the women was based on the questionnaire data and their urine cotinine concentration. The urine concentration of lead and cadmium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace. The mean urine lead concentration of women who smoked, were exposed to ETS and unexposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy were respectively: 38,16±59,10; 36,24±50,11; 32,74±53,48 ng/mg of creatinine, and mean cadmium concentration were respectively: 1,86±1,58; 1,13±1,24; 1,31±1,50 ng/mg of creatinine. The correlation between the urine concentration of cadmium and cotinine was statistically significant. Increased frequency of tobacco smoking was in the group of the women aged less than 25 years, that finished primary or vocational school, had monthly income less tan 500 zl/family mem ; ber, and have smoking partners. In the group of women who smoked during pregnancy the childbirth was statistically more often by caesarian and supported delivery. The newborns of mothers who smoked and were exposed to ETS had birth weight respectively 348,5 g and 281,1 g smaller than newborns of unexposed mothers. The length of newborns of smoking and ETS exposed mothers were respectively 2,8 cm and 0, 7 cm shorter then newborns of unexposed mothers.

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Level of degree:

2 - studia doktoranckie

Degree discipline:

toksykologia ; neonatologia ; zdrowie publiczne

Degree grantor:

Wydział Lekarski


Piekoszewski, Wojciech Piotr



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Praca doktorska

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